Evolving Aerospace Trends in the Asia-Pacific Region
Aerospace power is emerging as a key instrument of Chinese statecraft. Informed by universal air campaign theory and spurred by a global diffusion of technology, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is developing capabilities that could alter the strategic landscape well beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Aerospace power is defining the future strategic environment in the Asia-Pacific region. Its vast distances place a premium on speed and agility that defy the laws of gravity.
Aerospace power is the key to gaining strategic advantages by application of military force via platforms operating in or passing through air and space. Control of the skies is a critical enabler for dominance on the earth's surface and is often a vital determinant of success or defeat in a conflict. Gaining and maintaining air superiority provides a political and military leadership with the operational freedom needed to coerce an opponent to make concessions in political disputes or gain a decisive edge on the surface.
The rise of China as a major economic, technological, military, and political player is changing the dynamics within the Asia-Pacific region and the world at large. Uncertainty over Chinese intentions is creating anxieties. As the Brookings Institute's Richard Bush notes, "a rising power poses a challenge to the prevailing international system and to the states that guard that system, because the new power's intentions are usually unclear."1 Against the backdrop of ambiguity and uncertainty of the future, China's aerospace developments merit further examination.
The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is rapidly advancing its capacity to apply aerospace power in order to defend against perceived threats to national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Constrained by a relatively underdeveloped aviation establishment, the PLA is investing in aerospace capabilities that may offset shortcomings in the face of a more technologically advanced adversary. Whoever dominates the skies over a given territory, such as Taiwan, disputed territories in northern India or Japan, and the South China Sea, has a decisive advantage on the surface.
Most significant is the expansion of, and growing reliance on, conventional ballistic and ground launched cruise missiles as the centerpiece of the PRC's political and military strategy. Large scale theater missile raids, combined with other enablers such as an electronic attack, directed against selected critical nodes within an opponent's command and control structure or air defense system, can enable conventional air operations to be carried out at reduced risk and cost.
Barring the fielding of effective countermeasures, Chinese conventional theater missiles, specifically short and medium range ballistic and extended range land attack cruise missiles (LACMs), may over time give the PLA a decisive advantage in future conflicts around China's periphery. Ballistic and ground launched, land attack cruise missiles are an attractive means of delivering lethal payloads due to the inherent difficulties in defending against them. Ballistic missiles themselves have a strong coercive effect as potential adversaries around the PRC periphery have limited defensive countermeasures.
The PRC also is focused on developing the means to deny or complicate the ability of the United States to intervene in a regional crisis. Authoritative Chinese writings indicate research into, and development of, increasingly accurate and longer range conventional strategic strike systems that could be launched from Chinese territory against land and sea-based targets throughout the Asia-Pacific region in a crisis situation.
Extended range conventional precision strike assets could be used to suppress U.S. operations from forward bases in Japan, from U.S. aircraft battle groups operating in the Western Pacific, and perhaps over the next five to ten years from U.S. bases on Guam. Development and eventual deployment of an anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM) is an example of an emerging capability. China's research and development community also is expanding the nation's capacity for regional maritime surveillance. Most noteworthy is the development of slow moving flight vehicles that operate in near space—the domain above where conventional aircraft fly, yet below orbiting satellites.
Beijing's theater missile-centric strategy presents challenges that transcend the operational realm. Beijing's large infrastructure of short range ballistic missiles opposite Taiwan fosters mistrust and discourages meaningful political dialogue that could lead toward a resolution of differences in a manner acceptable to people on Taiwan and in the international community.
Beyond Taiwan, the conventional theater missile2 build-up has the potential to create strategic competitions that increase the risks of conflict in the future. The PRC's growing capacity to exercise its aerospace power around its periphery provides an incentive for neighbors to shore up defenses, as well as develop similar capabilities. The most effective and efficient means of defending against theater missiles is neutralizing the missile infrastructure on the ground. In the absence of a common set of norms governing the horizontal and vertical proliferation of ballistic and ground-launched cruise missiles, countries throughout the region, including the United States and India, are by necessity increasing investment into long range precision strike systems in order to maintain a conventional deterrent and ensure effective defense should deterrence fail.
China's successes in designing, developing, and producing the world's largest and most sophisticated arsenal of medium and intermediate range ballistic missiles creates a demand for similar capabilities around the world. Thus, the PLA's conventional theater missile-centric strategy potentially weakens international efforts to curb the proliferation of the means of delivery for weapons of mass destruction.
This chapter addresses trends in PRC force modernization, strategy, and doctrine intended to exploit weaknesses in regional air defenses, including a growing ability to maintain persistent surveillance out to a range of 3,000 kilometers. Included is a detailed overview of China's expanding short and medium range ballistic missile and ground launched cruise missile infrastructure. The subsequent section outlines trends in conventional air force, air and missile defense, and long range precision strike modernization in Taiwan, Japan, India, and the United States. The final section addresses options for countering the coercive utility of evolving PRC aerospace power, including cooperative threat reduction initiatives.
AEROSPACE CAMPAIGN THEORY
Unimpeded access to skies over a region is a significant demonstration of power. As a key architect of modern U.S. air doctrine, retired Colonel John Warden once observed, "no country has won a war in the face of enemy air superiority, no major offensive has succeeded against an opponent who controlled the air, and no defense has sustained itself against an enemy who had air superiority." Success in a campaign for sea control, an amphibious invasion, a ground campaign, or a coercive air campaign depends upon air superiority, as air superiority significantly reduces the risk of surface operations. In a conflict, the side that first wins air superiority will gain an overwhelming advantage.
Aerospace power can serve political as well as military objectives. Coercive aerospace power is the integrated application of information operations and weapon systems, through the medium of air, against strategic and operational-level targets to influence an adversary to act in a manner that it may not otherwise. Therefore, strikes are not only mounted or threatened against key infrastructure and installations, but are also intended to change the target entity's policy. Hence, the effectiveness of a coercive air campaign is measured by strategic outcomes, notably attainment of political goals, rather than on tactical effectiveness (e.g., the effects that bombs, missiles, and electronic attack have on their intended targets). 3
CHINESE FORCE MODERNIZATION
Influenced by U.S. campaign theory, aerospace power is emerging as a key instrument of PRC statecraft. Like most defense establishments, the PLA characterizes its modernization efforts as defensive in nature. To this end, aerospace power is viewed as a vital element of territorial air defense with offensive air operations as a key capability. Over the years, the PLA has made significant advances in developing a force capable of applying aerospace power in a joint environment.4 PLA analysts view aerospace campaigns as an integral component of "firepower warfare," which involves the coordinated use of PLA Air Force (PLAAF) strike aviation assets, Second Artillery conventional theater missiles, and information warfare. Today, the PLA leadership depends upon its ballistic missile and ground launched cruise missiles (GLCMs) force—the Second Artillery—to deter potential adversaries, and defend against perceived threats to national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Increasingly accurate conventional ballistic missiles and GLCMs are the optimal means for suppressing enemy air defense and creating a more permissive environment for subsequent conventional air operations due to their relative immunity to defense systems. In addition, space-based, airborne, and ground-based sensors can facilitate command and control, and provide crucial strategic intelligence, theater awareness, targeting, and battle damage assessment information.
Together, the joint application of aerospace forces creates a synergy that could have significant military and political effects. Looking beyond traditional ballistic and land attack cruise missiles, China currently views the realm between the atmosphere and space as a new area of global competition. This has compelled its research and development community to conduct feasibility studies into a new generation of flight vehicles and sensor systems.
THE CENTERPIECE OF CHINA'S COERCIVE AEROSPACE POWER: CONVENTIONAL BALLISTIC AND LAND ATTACK CRUISE MISSILES
The PRC's growing arsenal of increasingly accurate and lethal conventional ballistic and land attack cruise missiles has rapidly emerged as a cornerstone of PLA warfighting capability. Since the official establishment of the PLA's first SRBM brigade in 1993, ballistic missiles have been a primary instrument of psychological and political intimidation, but also potentially devastating tools of military utility. Over the last two decades, the Second Artillery's conventional ballistic and land attack cruise missile force—a form of aerospace power that will be critical for achievement of information dominance and air superiority in the opening phase of a conflict—has expanded significantly. Reporting directly to the Central Military Commission, Second Artillery headquarters oversees one central nuclear warhead storage base and six missile bases that operate throughout the vast expanse of China:
- • Headquartered in Shenyang, 51 Base consists of five brigades extended across five provinces in north and northeastern China.
- • From the Anhui city of Huangshan, 52 Base oversees five SRBM brigades and as many as three MRBM brigades in southeast China.
- • Headquartered in Kunming, 53 Base manages two MRBM brigades in Yunnan and two GLCM brigades located in the provinces of Guangxi and Guizhou.
- • Luoyang's 54 Base commands three ICBM brigades concentrated in Henan.
- • Headquartered in the western Hunan city of Huaihua, 55 Base consists of three ICBM brigades in Hunan and one GLCM brigade in neighboring Jiangxi province.
- • From the Qinghai city of Xining, 56 Base oversees four brigades operating in Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Gansu.
- • The Second Artillery centrally stores most of the country's nuclear warheads in Taibai County, deep in the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province.5
Second Artillery headquarters also oversee a number of direct reporting operational support units. For example, a regiment-sized unit north of Beijing specializes in all-source intelligence, and would likely be deployed to a theater command center as the intelligence cell.6 At least one, and probably two, electronic countermeasures (ECM) regiments would support the Second Artillery component commander within a Joint Theater Command.7 A central depot north of Beijing stores non-mission essential supplies for the entire force.8
Short Range Ballistic Missile Infrastructure
The Second Artillery's SRBM infrastructure is a central component of the PRC's coercive political and military strategy. In 2000, China's SRBM force was limited to one "regimental-sized unit" in southeastern China. Today, the force has grown to at least seven SRBM brigades. Among these, five are subordinate to the Second Artillery's 52 Base and the remaining two units report directly to military regions.9 The number of missiles in the Second Artillery, widely cited as exceeding 1,300 (inclusive of tactical missiles assigned to ground forces), may be less relevant than how they are organized and prepared for deployment.
A standard SRBM brigade consists of six battalions; each including two companies, with at least two or three launchers assigned to each company. Therefore, a combined force of five brigades could theoretically could leverage between 120 and 180 mobile launchers to carry out a salvos fired from multiple axis to saturate missile defenses, paralyze airbases by damaging runways, and attack other military infrastructure. In addition to the launch battalions, a brigade headquarters oversees a command post, a technical battalion, a communications battalion, an ECM group, and an established rail transfer point. Arrayed against Taiwan are at least five SRBM brigades subordinate to Second Artillery, the PLA's primary strategic strike force. 10
Medium Range Ballistic Missiles
Having established a solid foundation in conventional SRBMs, the PLA has begun to extend and diversify the warfighting capacity of the Second Artillery's ballistic missile force. The centerpiece of the Second Artillery's regional mission is the two stage, solid fueled DF-21 medium range ballistic missile (MRBM). The first DF-21 system with a dedicated nuclear mission entered the Second Artillery's operational inventory in 1991 and gradually replaced older liquid-fueled DF-3A intermediate range ballistic missile systems.
Over the next five to 10 years, the centerpiece of the Second Artillery's extended range conventional strike capability will be the DF-21C MRBM. Capable of "both conventional and nuclear missions" [hechang jianbei; 核常兼备], the DF-21C's guidance, navigation, and control system is modeled after the U.S. Pershing II. The terminally-guided DF-21C can deliver a 2,000 kilogram warhead to a range of at least 1,750 kilometers with a circular error probable (CEP) of less than 50 meters. The system could be used for conventional strikes against targets throughout Japan from east and northeast China, New Delhi if based in Xinjiang, and western India if based in Yunnan. 11
The Second Artillery has an operational force structure of at least eight, and possibly as many as ten, brigades equipped with a DF-21 variant. Trends indicate that conventionally capable variants are gradually replacing at least a portion of the force's DF-21A inventory. Standard DF-21C force structure appears to mirror that of SRBM brigades with each brigade having six launch battalions with two companies each. Assuming that a single launcher is assigned to each company, a DF-21C brigade could be initially equipped with 12 launchers.
Ground Launched Cruise Missiles (GLCMs)
To augment its ballistic missile arsenal, Second Artillery is steadily expanding its ground launched LACM infrastructure. GLCMs are powerful instruments of military and political utility due to the inherent difficulty in defending against them. Within only a few years of initial deployments, the PRC today has the world's largest inventory of extended range GLCMs. Able to penetrate defenses and strike critical targets on land, out to a range of at least 2,000 kilometers, the Second Artillery's DH-10 LACMs appear to have enjoyed a relatively high acquisition priority. Home based in south-central and southwestern China, and highly mobile via rail, cruise missiles are able to strike from any direction, presenting a challenge for the defender with their low altitude trajectories. The DH-10 is deployed on a three-tube road mobile launcher and approximately 100 LACMs are reportedly entering the operational inventory each year.12
The Second Artillery established an initial regimental-level seed unit under 53 Base in the Liuzhou area of Guangxi Province in 2000. After final acceptance testing in July 2003, the regiment conducted its first operational test firing in October 2003, and by 2006 it had converted to brigade status. Identified as a rapid reaction unit for cross-country deployments and trained in concealment, the brigade is organized along similar lines as its SRBM and MRBM counterpart units—six launch battalions consisting of two companies each.13 Newer units appear to be located in the vicinity of Guiyang, Guizhou Province and Yichun City in Jiangxi Province.
In short, the PRC has the fastest growing and most sophisticated extended range groundlaunched LACM infrastructure in the world. Based in south-central and southwest China, two or possibly three Second Artillery GLCM brigades would be able to rapidly forward deploy in a crisis situation.
Anti-Ship Ballistic Missiles and Beyond
Authoritative Chinese writings indicate research into and the development of increasingly accurate and longer range conventional strategic strike systems that could be launched from Chinese territory against land- and sea-based targets throughout the Asia-Pacific. An imminent manifestation of long term intent would be the deployment of conventional medium range ballistic missiles capable of engaging naval combatants, including aircraft carrier strike groups (CSGs), in the western Pacific Ocean.14
Many of the basic technologies needed for a rudimentary ASBM capability have been in development for more than twenty years. At the core of this capability is an advanced missileborne sensing and data processing system supported by strategic cueing from a dual-use maritime surveillance network. Building on the successes of the terminally guided DF-21C and DF-15C15 programs, development of an ASBM program is centered on advanced microelectronics and an upgraded guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) package.16
Technical studies address a wide range of GNC issues, including the need for some form of mid-course update, missile-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), automated target recognition, terminal guidance, thermal protection, and radiofrequency blackout associated with a flight vehicle traveling at hypersonic speeds in the upper atmosphere. Manufacturing facilities for solid rocket motors associated with an initial ASBM variant, designated as the DF-21D, appear to have been constructed in 2009. Some form of "testing," 17 likely flight testing of a new motor and airframe, is underway. Integrated flight testing of the airframe, motor, guidance, navigation, and control systems against a target at sea will likely be the final step in the design certification process.18
Barring deployment of effective defenses, an initial ASBM would give the PLA a precision strike capability against aircraft carriers and other U.S. and allied ships operating with 1,500-2,000 kilometers from China's coast. Over the longer term, Chinese technical writings indicate the preliminary conceptual development of a conventional global precision strike capability. The accuracy and range of the PLA's conventional ballistic missile force is also expected to improve significantly over the next 10-15 years as missiles incorporate more advanced inertial and satellite aided navigation systems, sophisticated terminal guidance systems, and increasingly powerful solid rocket motors.
Conventional Air Modernization
While the Second Artillery has expanded significantly, PLAAF modernization has progressed at a more modest pace.19 The PLAAF has been diversifying its roles and missions, moving away from a force exclusively responsible for air defense, interdiction, and close air support for ground forces toward a service whose primary mission is deterrence and strategic attack. The PLAAF's diversification is grounded in a body of theories which stipulate that a firepower warfare campaign could independently support national objectives. The predominant operational focus of the Air Force is denial—paralyzing an adversary's capabilities to the extent that further resistance appears futile and the costs of continued resistance outweigh surrender. However, the PLAAF envisions its future role as an independent service capable of conducting strategic strike missions at extended ranges in support of national objectives.
Given resource constraints and the overlap in the core mission of strategic strike, the rapid rise of the conventional Second Artillery may have contributed to the slow pace of PLAAF modernization. The rapid deployment of ballistic missiles and GLCMs has dampened the requirement for an offensive-oriented Air Force. Another possible constraint has been the limitations of China's aviation industry and its corresponding reliance on foreign procurement of key systems. Nevertheless, over the coming decade, a capable, technologically advancing domestic aviation industry may be positioned to better support the PLAAF's vision of becoming a world-class service capable of conducting air campaigns independent of the Second Artillery.
To close the gap between its doctrinal aspirations and capabilities, senior PLAAF representatives have outlined general requirements for meeting expected strategic challenges. Guided by the development strategy of "integrated air and space, and combined offense and defense [空天一体, 攻防兼备]," senior PLAAF leadership note that required capabilities include the capacity to carry out long range precision strike, an ability to attain local or limited air superiority, stealth, "full spectrum" air and missile defense, new "trump card" [撒手锏] weapons systems, long range airlift [远程投送], and unmanned aerial vehicles.20 According to one detailed Taiwanese assessment, the PLAAF had set a goal to be able to conduct an air campaign within a 1000 kilometer radius of China's periphery by 2010—one that has not been successful to date—and to extend the range to 3,000 kilometers by 2030.21
In sum, the PLA Air Force is making modest progress in developing advanced capabilities with an eye toward expanding its operational range. The ability to carry out strategic strike missions at ranges of 3,000 kilometers or more is viewed as the key to becoming a truly independent service, rather than one dependent on Second Artillery or a supporting player to the ground forces. Despite the PLAAF's aspirations to develop a force capable of an independent air campaign around China's periphery, senior PRC political and military authorities will likely will continue to rely on the established capabilities of the Second Artillery for coercion, strategic strike missions, and suppression of enemy air defenses for some time to come.
Sensor Architecture and Integrated Air and Space Defense
The PLA's ability to conduct strategic and operational strike missions is likely to be restricted by the range of its persistent surveillance. To expand its battlespace awareness, the PLA is investing in at least four capabilities that could enable it to monitor activities in the Western Pacific, South China Sea, and Indian Ocean.
Persistent Near Space Surveillance. Chinese analysts view the realm between the atmosphere and space –"near space"—as an area of future strategic competition.22 Over the decade, near space flight vehicles (jinkongjian feixingqi; 近空间飞行器) may emerge as a dominant platform for a persistent region-wide surveillance capability during crisis situations. space is generally characterized as the region between 20 and 100 kilometers (65,000 to 328,000 feet) above the earth's surface. 23
While technical challenges exist, the Second Artillery and China's defense R&D community have become increasingly interested in near space flight vehicles for reconnaissance, communications relay, electronic countermeasures, and precision strike operations.24 In order to overcome technical challenges, China's aerospace industry, specifically CASC and CASIC, have established new research institutes dedicated to the design, development, and manufacturing of near space flight vehicles. Establishment of a dedicated research institutes for leveraging the unique characteristics of near space signifies the importance that China places on this domain.25
Space-Based Surveillance. Increasingly sophisticated space-based systems would expand PLA battlespace awareness and support strike operations further from Chinese shores.26 Space assets enable the monitoring of naval activities in surrounding waters and the tracking of air force deployments into the region. Space-based reconnaissance systems also provide imagery necessary for mission planning functions, such as navigation and terminal guidance for LACMs. Satellite communications also offer a survivable means of transmission that will become particularly important as the PLA operates further from its territory.
A regional strike capability would rely partly on high resolution, dual-use space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR), electro-optical (EO), and possibly electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellites for surveillance and targeting. China's space industry is reportedly nearing completion of its second generation SAR satellite, and its EO capabilities have been steadily progressing. While information is sparse, indications exist that at least some funding has been dedicated toward developing a space-based ELINT capability.27 In a crisis situation, China may have the option of augmenting existing space-based assets with microsatellites launched on solid-fueled launch vehicles. Existing and future data relay satellites and other beyond line of sight communications systems could transmit targeting data to and from the theater and/or Second Artillery's operational-level command center.28
Over-the-Horizon Radar. In addition to space-based, near space, and airborne sensors, over the horizon backscatter (OTH-B) radar systems would be a central element of an extended range air and maritime surveillance architecture.29 Managed by the PLAAF, an OTH radar system could define the range of China's maritime precision strike capability. Skywave OTH radar systems emit a pulse in the lower part of the frequency spectrum (3-30MHz) that bounces off the ionosphere to illuminate a target—either air or surface—from the top down. As a result, detection ranges for wide area surveillance can extend out to 1,000 to 4,000 km.30
In summary, a PLA aerospace campaign intended to coerce an adversary would emphasize preemption, surprise, and concentration of its most advanced assets to achieve a measure of shock. In order to effectively guide a campaign, command and control would be centrally planned and executed by the Joint Theater Command. It would also be supported by other joint command systems, including a joint Firepower Command Center, as well as command centers that oversee component operations of the PLAAF and the Second Artillery. The PLAAF, while technologically behind the U.S. Air Force and others, is evolving into a force capable of dominating the skies around its periphery, with support from the Second Artillery and information warfare assets.
The PRC's expanding capacity for conducting an aerospace campaign in the Asia-Pacific region would likely be a variable of its territorial disputes with states around its periphery. As its military strength increases relative to those of its neighbors, the PRC could feasibly become more assertive in its claims. Along this trajectory, miscalculations, accidents, disputes over sovereignty, or other unforeseen events have the potential to escalate into armed conflict between the PRC and its neighbors. Each defense establishment in the region appears to be approaching the challenges differently, although most are attempting to balance interests in maintaining healthy relations with Beijing while at the same time hedging in the event of a future conflict.
Taiwan serves as the principle coalescing driver for the PRC's development of capabilities that seek to dominate the skies around its periphery. Beijing is steadily broadening its military options, including the ability to use force at reduced cost in terms of PLA lives, equipment, and diminished overall effects on the country's longer term development goals. Beyond simply expanding military options against Taiwan, the PRC is also is developing the means to deny or complicate the ability or willingness of the United States to intervene in response to its use of force.
A fundamental PLA guiding concept is to compel a political concession swiftly, using only the minimal force necessary.31 However, most analyses of the cross-Strait military balance are based upon the worst case, and least likely, scenario involving a PLA amphibious invasion and physical occupation of Taiwan. In these scenarios, air dominance is a necessary precondition. It is envisioned that large scale SRBM salvos will be carried out against groundbased air defenses, airbases, and other critical military infrastructure, and be followed up by conventional PLAAF strikes to ensure that air defenses remain suppressed. The Second Artillery's ability to overwhelm ground-based air defenses and damage runways would give the PLAAF the necessary advantage to attain air superiority over the Taiwan Strait. If successfully able to operate in the skies over Taiwan with impunity, PLAAF interdiction missions could effectively support an amphibious invasion.32
A relative erosion of Taiwan's military capabilities, especially in aerospace power, could create opportunities and incentives for Beijing's political and military leadership to assume greater risk in cross-Strait relations, including resorting to force to resolve political differences. Among the most significant aspects of Taiwan's aerospace power include its conventional air force assets, missile defenses, and strategic strike capabilities.
Responsible for ensuring air sovereignty, the ROC Air Force (ROCAF) has traditionally sought to maintain a fleet of approximately 400 fighters.33 Its inventory today includes 56 Mirage-2000, 145 F-16 A/B, 126 Indigenous Defense Fighters (IDFs), and 60 F-5E/F fighters. With its F-5s reaching the end of their operational life, and the entire Mirage, IDF, and F-16 fleet all entering service in 1997, the ROCAF began long range planning for procurement of new fighters as early as 1999. Evaluating a range of options, including the AV-8B and F-35/Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), the ROCAF's first preference has been a vertical/short take off and landing (V/STOL) airframe. 34
As the ROCAF's F-5 fleet gradually retires over the next five years, planners foresee a widening fighter gap between now and 2020, which is the earliest that a VSTOL airframe could enter its operational inventory. To bridge the gap, the ROCAF has pursued acquisition of an additional 66 F-16 fighters through U.S. foreign military sales (FMS) channels. With F-16A/B Block 20s no longer in production, the C/D Block 50/52 variant is the closest to the technological level of the ROCAF's existing fighters.
The primary challenge that the ROCAF faces is not its counterpart, the PLAAF, but rather the Second Artillery's potential ability to ground ROCAF fighters by damaging runways and other airbase infrastructure. As a result, the ROCAF has been evaluating how to best maximize its ability to sustain flight operations after initial strikes.35 Taiwan is also investing in early warning and terminal missile defenses in order to undercut the coercive utility of Second Artillery theater missiles. 36
In addition, Taiwan has long maintained an ability to carry out deep strike missions against military targets in southeast China. To counter PRC coercion, Taiwan stresses maintenance of the necessary military strength, the ability to survive a first-strike attack, and an ability to carry out a second-strike retaliation.37 In the past, the ROCAF has earmarked a limited number of its fighters for strike missions, should a decision be made to do so. However, with PLA air defenses growing increasingly sophisticated, Taiwan has been developing other means to maintain a limited strike option. PRC sources indicate that Taipei has been developing its own answer to the Second Artillery's DH-10 GLCM: a land attack variant of the HF-2 anti-ship cruise missile, the HF-2E.38
Unlike Taiwan, Japan's security concerns primarily directed at North Korea. The chances for armed conflict between the PRC and Japan are slim, despite historical animosity and budding nationalist sentiments. However, unresolved territorial disputes and a more assertive China could lead to a crisis in the future. With North Korea serving as the most immediate concern, Japan has been taking steps to modernize its defenses. Although a shift in the strategic environment could alter its direction, Japan has maintained an operationally defensive strategy, consisting of conventional air forces and ground based air defenses, to defend against threats from above. Relying on its alliance partner, the United States, for operations outside its territory, Japan's defense establishment has chosen to forgo theater missiles for strategic strike missions. As a result, it places a premium on early warning and engagement of inbound threats. Therefore, their priorities include the procurement of next generation fighters, integrated air and missile defenses, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems.39
In light of the PRC's ambitious force modernization, Japan's SDF faces a number of challenges in the years ahead. Given the PRC's impressive advancements in ballistic and cruise missile technology; electronic, cyber, and anti-satellite capabilities; C4ISR developments, and conventional air modernization programs, trends suggest PLA capabilities relative the JSDF could enable the former to attain local air superiority over competing territorial claims at the outset of any future conflict. Among these challenges include the lack of hardening at key airbases and command and control facilities, shortcomings in cruise missile defense, and uncertainties surrounding procurement of a suitable next generation fighter.40 Of the aforementioned vulnerabilities, loss of command and control facilities appears to be a particular shortcoming.
As time goes on, the JASDF's requirement for a low observable air superiority fighter, preferably one able to interoperate with U.S. Air Force counterparts, will grow. Furthermore, should the U.S.-Japan alliance prove incapable of deterring PRC military action over a territorial dispute, an inability to defend against conventional MRBMs and GLCMs could prompt a future political leadership in Tokyo to rethink self-imposed restrictions on the development of offense strike systems. Past media reporting indicates Tokyo has at least considered the procurement of strike systems such Tomahawks.41
While India and China today maintain cordial official relations, tensions simmer under the surface. The PRC's territorial dispute with India is over two tracts of land in the eastern and northern India—Aksai Chin, which is currently administered by the PRC under the Xinjiang UAR; and Arunachal Pradesh, which is currently administered by India. While competing claims are unlikely to erupt in conflict, it is worth noting though that they did go to war over this in 1962, and that the experience has severely conditioned Indian threat perceptions of China. For all the PRC's attempts to resolve border disputes with its neighbors, the one with India is still outstanding. India is enhancing its aerospace power with significant investment into Air Force, theater missile, and missile defense modernization.42
With declared security interests extending from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca, the Indian Air Force (IAF) is modernizing rapidly to address the country's security interests. The IAF is in the process of upgrading its older fighter fleet. In response to Chinese and Pakistani theater missile development programs, India's Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) also has been diversifying the Indian Army's ballistic and land attack cruise missile inventory.43
PRC AEROSPACE MODERNIZATION AND REGIONAL STABILITY
The Asia-Pacific region is in the midst of fundamental change, with significant implications for long term strategic stability. The gradual expansion of China's long range precision strike capabilities, especially its increasingly sophisticated conventional ballistic and GLCM infrastructure, is altering the regional strategic landscape. Due their speed, precision, and difficulties in fielding viable defenses, these systems—if deployed in sufficient numbers—have the potential to provide the PRC with a decisive military edge in the event of conflict over territorial or sovereignty claims. Reliance on ballistic missiles and extended range LACMs also incentivizes other militaries to develop similar capabilities. Beyond force modernization programs in India and Taiwan, the PRC's expansion of its aerospace capabilities is at least a partial driver for a modest shift in U.S. defense policies.44
The PLA's expanding capacity to deny the United States access to bases and the ability to project power into the region figured prominently in the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR).45 Augmenting the QDR are a number of analyses outlining ways to manage the dynamic shifts underway in the region. With concerns mounting over the anti-access challenge to utilizing bases in the Western Pacific and area denial capabilities that could restrict U.S. naval operations, pressure to reduce the U.S. footprint in Japan and elsewhere could mount. Noting the emergence of an arms race, the Center for a New American Security's Robert Kaplan foresees a shift in U.S. basing; moving away from allied territories to Guam and the South Pacific Islands, and greater U.S. naval presence in the Indian Ocean.46
To counter the PLA's growing capacity to carry out an extended range aerospace campaign, one detailed study suggests investing in the ability to withstand initial strikes and limit damage to U.S. and allied forces and bases, neutralize PLA command and control networks, suppress the PLA's theater sensor architecture and theater strike systems, and sustain initiative in the air, on the sea, in space, and within the cyber domain.47
In short, the PRC's expanding aerospace capabilities are influencing the development of similar capabilities in other defense establishments, including the United States. However, they may also have another effect. PLA successes in fielding advanced long range precision strike systems dilutes international efforts to stem proliferation of the means of delivery for weapons of mass destruction. This may encourage other countries to follow suit, especially as China's global leadership and standing increases. In particular, GLCMs have emerged as another proliferation concern. In light of Russia's threats for withdrawal, partially due to the global proliferation of short and medium range ballistic and ground launched cruise missiles, the PLA's selection of these systems to defend its territorial claims could also undermine one of the most successful and enduring arms control agreements to date—the Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty.
Largely driven by a Taiwan scenario, China's capacity to conduct a successful aerospace campaign to swiftly gain a decisive air advantage has the potential to surpass defenses that its neighbors, including Taiwan, Japan, perhaps India, and even U.S. forces operating in the Western Pacific, may be able to field. Among the most significant capabilities that are contributing toward an imbalance are the PLA's long range precision strike systems, primarily its conventional ballistic and land attack cruise missiles. Perhaps equally important, however, is an evolving sensor network that would be needed to cue strike assets and offer situation awareness around China's periphery. Another factor is China's growing ability to defend its strike assets from interdiction on the ground and redundancy in its command and control system.
Over time, an expansion of its theater missile infrastructure, conventional air power, and sensor systems could give China a decisive edge in securing control over the skies around its periphery should territorial disputes erupt into conflict. The ability to dominate the airspace over a given geographic domain has the potential to create instability should political disagreements flare up. The more confident that a country is of military success, the greater the chance that force could be assertively applied in pursuit of political demands. Balance and stability require that no single power be assured of air superiority.
Over the next 15 years, the PRC may be increasingly confident of its ability to dominate the skies around its periphery within a region limited by a persistent surveillance architecture. If confident in its ability to dominate the skies around its periphery, Beijing also could become more assertive in its dealings with others in the region. A strategic shift in regional aerospace balance also may increasingly unravel the fabric of U.S. alliances and prompt allies and friends to consider of weapons of mass destruction and means of delivery as a means of security. Addressing these challenges requires maintaining or developing the means to undercut the political and military utility of the PRC's theater missile-centric strategy and striving for a balance that could deter PRC recourse to force or other means of coercion. However, alternative approaches could offer initiatives for moderating PLA force postures and address underlying security dilemmas through cooperative threat reduction programs.
Rolling back the missile problem starts with Taiwan. The potential for PRC coercive use of force to resolve political differences with Taiwan has been and likely will remain the primary flash point in the region. It is also the contingency that most likely would bring the U.S. and China, as well as others in the region, into armed conflict. With the aforementioned in mind, a relative erosion of Taiwan's military capabilities could create opportunities and incentives for Beijing's political and military leadership to assume greater risk in cross-Strait relations, including resorting to force to resolve political differences.
The single most significant act that could be taken to avoid risks of military confrontation over the next 10 to 15 years would be a PRC renunciation of military force to resolve its political differences with Taiwan. This, in combination with a tangible reduction in its military posture, specifically a drawdown or even redeployment of the PRC SRBM infrastructure deployed opposite Taiwan, would facilitate demilitarization in the Taiwan Strait and place the region on a more stable course.
In the near term, a PRC withdrawal of its five SRBM brigades opposite Taiwan would demonstrate peaceful intent and enhance stability in the Asia-Pacific region. While reports of unknown reliability have surfaced indicating the issue is under consideration in Beijing, withdrawal of missiles would be insufficient.48 However, the redeployment of the infrastructure under 52 Base consisting of five SRBM brigades opposite Taiwan to 53 Base, 55 Base, or 56 Base would increase warning time and thus build confidence.
A Chinese withdrawal of its SRBM infrastructure would be a good starting point on a parallel global initiative to globally roll back land based ballistic and cruise missiles. The PRC's emphasis on ballistic and LACMs provides an impetus for others to develop similar capabilities. Chinese restraint in the development, production, and deployment of extended range land based conventional ballistic and cruise missiles would also build confidence among its neighbors and reduce incentives to develop and field countermeasures.
China's conventional ballistic missile and GLCM build-up has taken place within the vacuum created by the INF Treaty. The treaty, signed in December 1987, had called for the elimination of all U.S. and Russian land-based ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers within three years. By May 1991, the United States and Soviet Union had dismantled the last of more than 2,500 GLCMs and ground-launched ballistic missiles along with their support equipment as covered under the INF Treaty.
In part due to China's build up of theater missiles, Russia has outlined concerns regarding the strictly bilateral nature of the INF Treaty, echoed by others who have advocated a global "zero ballistic missile (ZBM) regime" and flight test ban. 49 Washington and Moscow have sought to strengthen the INF Treaty by encouraging other countries to join the accord. In October 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin told then-Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates that his government would find it difficult to continue complying with the INF Treaty unless other countries ratified the agreement as well.50
How PRC aerospace-related capabilities will evolve over the next fifteen years is still unclear, particularly in relation to those of the United States and Taiwan, as well as U.S. allies and friends such as Japan, Republic of Korea, Australia, and India. Over time, the same capabilities arrayed against Taiwan could support the pursuit of other sovereignty claims around its periphery. The PLA's short range ballistic missile infrastructure is the centerpiece of Beijing's political and military coercive strategy toward Taiwan today. The size and form of the Second Artillery's extended range ballistic and ground launch cruise missile infrastructure could be a metric of intent toward others in the future.
An international or regional agreement restricting land-based theater missiles is worth considering. Barring progress, being underprepared could prove to be detrimental to long term U.S. interests. Developments to watch closely include improvements in the range and payload of PLA aircraft; increases in the lethality, accuracy, and numbers of PLA conventional ballistic and land attack cruise missiles; and an expansion of China's regional persistent surveillance network. These indicators have profound strategic implications for the U.S. Given the centrality of the Asia-Pacific to U.S. global interests, China's aerospace development certainly warrants further attention.
1. Richard C. Bush III, "China and the U.S.-Japan Alliance," Yomiuri Shimbun, 6 June 2009, http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2009/0606_china_japan_bush.aspx.
2. For the purposes of this chapter, a theater missile is a ballistic or cruise missile with a range of between 500 and 5,500 kilometers.
3. See, for example, John A. Warden, "The Enemy as a System," Airpower Journal (Spring 1995), pp. 40-45.
4. For a detailed account of China's aerospace campaign doctrine, see Mark Stokes, "The Chinese Joint Aerospace Campaign: Strategy, Doctrine, and Force Modernization,'" in James Mulvenon and David Finklestein (eds), China's Revolution in Doctrinal Affairs: Emerging Trends in the Operational Art of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (Arlington, VA: CNA Corporation, 2005), http://www.cna.org/documents/DoctrineBook.pdf.
5. Mark Stokes, "China's Nuclear Warhead Storage and Handling System," Project 2049 Occasional Paper, March 2010, p. 3, http://project2049.net/documents/chinas_nuclear_warhead_storage_and_handling_system.pdf.
6. See, for example, Liu Feng and Wang Bingjun, "第二炮兵96637部队营造"尚武"文化" [Second Artillery 96637 Unit Establishes 'Warrior Culture'], Worker's Daily, 3 August 2006, http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2006-08-03/01009640261s.shtml.
7. The primary Second Artillery ECM Regiment is the 96620 Unit, home-based in Dingxing and commanded by Col Col Li Changwei [李长伟]. A newer regiment (96634 Unit) appears to have been formed in Nanchang. 8. Among various sources, see "第二炮兵后勤部某综合仓库育人经验谈 " [Experience in Personnel Education in the Second Artillery Logistics Department Integrated Depot], China Youth Daily, 30 November 2000, http://www.chinayouthdaily.com.cn/gb/djysd/2000-11/30/content_120940.htm.
8. Among various sources, see "第二炮兵后勤部某综合仓库育人经验谈" [Experience in Personnel Education in the Second Artillery Logistics Department Integrated Depot], China Youth Daily, 30 November 2000, http://www.chinayouthdaily.com.cn/gb/djysd/2000-11/30/content_120940.htm.
9. One unit is under the Nanjing Military Region in the area of Xianyou (73661 Unit) and is one in the area of Puning, Guangdong Province (75810 Unit).
10. For an excellent overview of Second Artillery organization, see Kenneth Allen and Maryanne Kivlehan-Wise, "Implementing the Second Artillery's Doctrinal Reforms," in James Mulvenon and David Finkelstein, eds., China's Revolution in Doctrinal Affairs (Alexandria, VA: Center for Naval Analysis, 2005).
11. For an excellent overview, see "The DF-21 Series Medium Range Ballistic Missile," KKTT Blog, 23 August 2009, http://liuqiankktt.blog.163.com/blog/static/121264211200972375114290/.
12. The 2007 report said that first and second generation LACMs should be deployed "in the near future." The 2008 DoD Report to Congress on PRC Military Power noted that 50-250 LACMs and 20-30 launchers were deployed, and the 2009 report assessed that the PLA has 150-350 LACMs and 40-55 launchers in its inventory.
13. The initial brigade commander appears to be Col. Zhou Zhongchun [周仲春], who participated in flight testing. See also "陆基巡航导弹方队长苟翼 " [Ground Launched Cruise Missile Group Commander Gou Yi], Xinhua, 1 October 2009, http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2009-10/01/content_12133327.htm; "今日长缨在手" [Taking the Spear into Battle], Liberation Army Daily, 26 May 2005 for an account of Zhou Zhongchun. For the concealment exercise, see "二炮新巡航导弹演练两次躲避 '侦察卫星'" [New Second Artillery Cruise Missile Exercises Twice to Avoid 'Satellites'], China Youth Daily, 15 January 2010, http://news.xinhuanet.com/mil/2010-01/15/content_12813545.htm. The brigade commander referenced in the article, Col. Xia Xiaoping, transferred to the Liuzhou LACM brigade from the Leping SRBM brigade in late 2009.
14. For detailed assessments of China's ASBM program, see Andrew Erickson and David Yang, "On the Verge of a Game-Changer: A Chinese Antiship Ballistic Missile Could Alter the Rules in the Pacific and Place U.S. Navy Carrier Strike Groups in Jeopardy," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 135, No. 3 (May 2009), pp. 26-32. See also Andrew S. Erickson, "Chinese ASBM Development: Knowns and Unknowns," Jamestown Foundation ChinaBrief, Vol. 9, Issue 13 (24 June 2009), pp. 4-8. For a broader summary, see Andrew S. Erickson and David D. Yang, "Using The Land To Control The Sea?: Chinese Analysts Consider the Antiship Ballistic Missile," Naval WarCollege Review, Vol. 62, No. 4 (Autumn 2009), pp. 53-86. Additionally, see Eric Hagt and Matthew Durnin,"China's Antiship Ballistic Missile: Developments and Missing Links," Naval War College Review, Vol. 62, No. 4,(Autumn 2009), pp. 87-115; and Mark Stokes, "China's Evolving Conventional Strategic Strike Capability: the Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Challenge to U.S. Maritime Operations in the Western Pacific and Beyond, Occasional Paper (Arlington, VA: Project 2049 Institute, 14 September 2009).
15. For a good U.S. discussion of the DF-15C, as well as a photo of a DF-15 with a biconic-shaped warhead, see Richard Fisher, "New Chinese Missiles Target the Greater Asian Region," International Assessment and Strategy Center, 24 July 2007.
16. For a general survey of terminally guided ballistic missile guidance and navigation technical requirements, see Zhang Yiguang and Zhou Chengping, "Technological Trends Associated with Surface-to-Surface Ballistic Missile Precision Guidance" (didi dandao daodan sixian yuancheng qingque daji de jishu qujing), Tactical Missile Control Technology (Zhanshu daodan kongzhi jishu), No. 2004, pp. 58-60. The authors are from the 066 Base's design department and Huazhong University.
17. "Statement of Admiral Robert F. Willard, U.S. Navy, Commander, U.S. Pacific Command, before the House Armed Services Committee on the U.S. Pacific Command Posture," 23 March 2010, http://armedservices.house.gov/pdfs/FC032510/Willard_Testimony032510.pdf.
18. In August 2009, the Hohhot city government announced the CASIC Sixth Academy's Honggang Factory (also known as the 359 Factory) completed a construction project for manufacturing of DF-21D solid rocket motors. See "关于2009年第五批建设项目环境保护设施竣工验收公众参与的公示 " [Fifth Announcement of 2009 for Completion and Acceptance of Construction Projects for Environmental Protection], Hohhot City Government Environmental Protection Bureau, August 20, 2009, accessed on 30 August 2009. The facility is 1780 m2. .
19. John Wilson Lewis and Xue Litai, "China's Search for a Modern Air Force," International Security, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Summer 1999), pp. 64-94, http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20614/China's_search_for_a_modern_air_force.pdf; Kevin M. Lanzit and Kenneth Allen, "Right-Sizing the PLA Air Force: New Operational Concepts Define a Smaller, More Capable Force," in Roy Kamphausen and Andrew Scobell (ed), Right Sizing The People's Liberation Army: Exploring The Contours of China's Military (Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007), pp. 437-78; Phillip C. Saunders and Erik Quam, "Future Force Structure of the Chinese Air Force in Roy Kamphausen and Andrew Scobell, eds, Right Sizing The People's Liberation Army: Exploring The Contours of China's Military (Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2007), pp. 377-436; and Xiaoming Zhang and Sean D. McClung, "The Art of Military Discovery: Chinese Air and Space Power Implications for the USAF, Strategic Studies Quarterly (Spring 2010), pp. 36-62.
20. See Liu Yalou, "在新的历史起点上推进空军现代化建设" [New Historical Starting Point in the Modernizing the Air Force], Qiushi [Seeking Truth], 17 January 2008, http://www.chinavalue.net/Article/Archive/2008/9/18/135542.html.
21. Wang Changhe, "中共空軍20 年的回顧與展望" [PLA Air Force 20 Year Review and Outlook], in Li Chentong et. al., 戰爭哲學與中共戰略研究 [The Philosophy of War and the Study on PRC's Strategy] (Taipei: National Defense University War Academy, 2008), pp. 96-97.
22. See Li Yiyong and Shen Huairong, "发展近空间飞行器系统的关键技术" [Key Technologies for Developing Near Space Flight Vehicles], Journal of the Academy of Equipment Command & Technology (October 2006), pp. 52-55.
25 . See Yang Jian, "航天一院 10所揭牌成立 " [CASC First Academy 10th. Research Institute Established], China Space News, 24 October, http://www.china-spacenews.com/n435777/n435778/n435783/49822.html.
26. For examples of U.S. overviews of China's space modernization, see Andrew S. Erickson, "Eyes in the Sky," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, Vol. 136, No. 4 (April 2010), pp. 36-41; Gregory Kulacki and Jeffrey G. Lewis, A Place for One's Mat: China's Space Program, 1956–2003 (Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2009), http://www.amacad.org/publications/spaceChina.pdf; Kevin Pollpeter, "The Chinese Vision of Space Military Operations," pp. 329-69, in James Mulvenon and David Finklestein, eds., China's Revolution in Doctrinal Affairs: Emerging Trends in the Operational Art of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, December 2005), http://www.defensegroupinc.com/cira/pdf/doctrinebook_ch9.pdf; and Larry M. Wortzel, The Chinese People's Liberation Army and Space Warfare: Emerging United States-China Military Competition (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 2007), http://www.aei.org/paper/26977.
27. See, for example, Yuan Xiaokang, "Satellite Electronic Reconnaissance, Antijamming," Shanghai Hangtian, 9 October 1996, pp. 32-37, in FBIS-CST-97-011. Yuan is a key engineer involved space-based antenna systems design, including both ELINT and SAR, from the SAST 509th Research Institute (Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering).
28. See "China Blasts Off First Data Relay Satellite," Xinhua News Agency, 26 April 2008.
29. See Sean O'Connor's excellent summary of the ASBM and OTH-B programs at http://geimint.blogspot.com/2008/11/oth-radar-and-asbm-threat.html.
30. See Tang Xiaodong, Han Yunjie, and Zhou Wenyu, "Skywave Over the Horizon Backscatter Radar," 2001 CIEInternational Radar Conference Proceedings, 2 January 2001.
31. Among various sources, see Chung Chien, "High Tech War Preparation of the PLA: Taking Taiwan Without Bloodshed," Taiwan Defense Affairs, Vol. 1 (October 2000), pp. 141-62.
32. David A. Shlapak, David T. Orletsky, Toy I. Reid, Murray Scot Tanner, and Barry Wilson, A Question ofBalance: Political Context and Military Aspects of the China-Taiwan Dispute (Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation, 2009), p. 42.
38. See "Taiwan to Deploy LACM," Taiwan Defense Review, 6 September 2005; Mark A. Stokes, "The Chinese Joint Aerospace Campaign: Strategy, Doctrine, and Force Modernization," in James Mulvenon and David Finkelstein, eds., China's Revolution in Doctrinal Affairs (Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 2005), pp. 291-302. Also see
"传台湾将试射可攻大陆雄 2E导弹年底产 80套" [Taiwan to Produce At Least 80 Hsiungfeng-2E Cruise Missiles That Can Hit Mainland China], Global Times, 25 March 2010, http://news.qq.com/a/20100325/001200.htm.
39. Ministry of Defense (MOD), Defense of Japan 2009, Chapter 1, section 3, p. 212, http://www.mod.go.jp/e/publ/w_paper/pdf/2009/29Part3_Chapter1_Sec3.pdf.
40. Russell Hsiao, "China's Fifth Generation Fighters and the Changing Strategic Balance," China Brief, Volume 9, Issue 23 (19 November 2009), http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=35745&tx_ttnews[backPid]=25&cHash =125ffd4175.
41. Nao Shimoyachi, "Japan Mulled Buying Cruise Missiles for Pre-Emptive Self-Defense: Ishiba," Japan Times, 25 January 2005, at http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20050125f2.html.
42. For an excellent overview of China-India military dynamics, see Srikanth Kondapalli, "The Chinese Military Eyes South Asia," in Andrew Scobell and Larry M. Wortzel, eds., Shaping China's Security Environment: the Role of the People's Liberation Army (Carlisle, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2006), pp. 197-282, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB709.pdf.
43. "India Set to Launch Agni 5 Missile Within Year," Nuclear Threat Initiative India Profile, 12 February 2010,
48. See one report, see Jiang Xun, "胡锦涛拟撤对台导弹内情 " [Inside Information on President Hu Jintao's Plan to http://www.yzzk.com/cfm/Content_Archive.cfm?Channel=ag&Path=4471927941/02ag6a.cfm.
49. Among various sources, see Thomas Graham and Dinshaw Mistry, "Two Treaties to Contain Missile Proliferation," Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 82 (Spring 2006), http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd82/82tgdm.htm; J. Jerome Holton, Lora Lumpe, and Jeremy J. Stone, "Proposal For a Zero Ballistic Missile Regime," 1993 Science and International Security Anthology (Washington, DC: AAAS, 1993), pp. 379-96.
50. Luke Harding, "Putin Threatens Withdrawal from Cold War Nuclear Treaty," The Guardian, October 12, 2007. Also see Joint U.S.-Russian Statement on the Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles at the 62nd Session of the UN General Assembly (25 October 2007), http://moscow.usembassy.gov/st_10252007.html